Flip-Flop

Block Diagram of Flip-Flop

Flip-flop is a sequential logical circuit, which is an edge trigger or sensitive. The flip-flop and latch are made via different logic gates. Flip-flop is different from latch because the clock feature is not present in latches, which is important for Flip-flop operations. The output of Flip-flops will change on either at the increasing edge or decreasing edge of the clock pulse, whereas the output is a change in the latch at the change of the level of clock pulse either high or low level.

The block diagram of a standard flip-flop is shown below

Block diagram of Flip-Flop

A sequential circuit which has only two states, 1 or 0, is called a flip-flop. Its two outputs are complementary to each other.

Types of Flip-flops

Basically flip-flops are 4 types. These are-

  • S-R FF
  • D FF
  • J-K FF
  • T FF

Set-Reset or S-R FF:

  • The S-R FF is a first and basic FF, which has two inputs – S and R.
  • S stands for “Set” and R stands for “Reset”.
  • The input of FF is called SET if its output Q has a high value or ‘1’ state, and when it is called RESET, if output Q has a low value or ‘0’ state.
  • Both the outputs are the complement of each other (i.e., output Q′ and Q ). Its output depends on the present as well as the previously stored output.
  • The characteristic equation is
  • The internal circuit and the excitation table of the S-R FF is shown below
S-R Flip Flop & Characteristic Table

Input Conditions

  1. S =R= 0 is the normal resting or no change condition of the FF. In this condition, the output ports (Q and Q’) hold the previous states, either 0 or 1.
  2. S = 0 and R = 1 is the resets or clears state of the FF. It is because RESET has a high or ‘1’ state.
  3. S =1 and R =0 is the set state of the FF. It is because SET has a high or ‘1’ state.
  4. S = R = 1 is forbidden state of the FF. It is because both the input has high or ‘1’ state at the same time.

Delay or D-FF:

  • The S-R FFthere is a forbidden state. To remove this condition from the FF, connect the input terminal of SR flip-flop with each other via an inverter or NOT gate.
  • The internal structure of D FF is shown below. The inverter or NOT gate placed for ensuring that inputs S and R will never equal.
  • The structure of D-FF is same as S-R FF except for single input terminal.
  • There are D stands for ‘Delay” because the inverter produces a small delay between both the input of FF that is directly shown in outputs.
  • The characteristic equation is
D Flip-flop & Characteristic Table

J-K FF:

  • The forbidden state output of S-R FF is removed in D FF, by joining both the inputs via an inverter or NOT gate. But the D FF has a single input terminal.
  • The J-K FF is similar to S-R FF because it has 2 inputs i.e., J and K.
  • The characteristic equation is
  • Both the inputs of J-K FF are high or ‘1’, the output toggles and the forbidden or ambiguous state are removed.
J-K Flip-flop & Characteristic Table

Toggle or T-FF:

  • The two input terminal of J-K flip-flop is connected to each other a new flip-flop is formed, which is called T Flip-flop.
  • T stands for “Toggle”.
  • The input of T flip-flop is high or ‘1’, the output toggles. This condition is called a toggle mode.
  • The input of T flip-flop is low or ‘0’, the output hold. This condition is called hold mode.
  • The characteristic equation is
T Flip-flop & Characteristic Table

Excitation Table

It shows the inputs of flip-flops when the next state and present state are known.

In the design process, generally the values of transition from the present state to the next state are known and the inputs conditions are unknown. To find the input conditions with the help of these required transition values. There is a requirement of a table that gives a relation between inputs of flip-flop and its present and next state. Such a list is called an excitation table.


Excitation Table

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